Thousands Of Years Of Chinese Culture Of Glass, How Much Do You Know?
Glass has thousands of years of Chinese culture. Archaeological discoveries show that Iraq Asmar unearthed pieces of glass from about 4,300 years ago. Glassware is about 3,600 years ago in Mesopotamia. Ancient glass in the West has been dominated by soda-lime glass, good resistance to temperature, strong adaptability to quench hot. Dating back 2,600 years ago, glass-making technology in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean coast is very popular, its products through the Western region (modern Xinjiang) descendants.
Zhou dynasty, no later than in the Western Zhou dynasty of more than 3,100 years ago, we began to master the first glass manufacturing technology. In Luoyang, Henan province Zhuang Chun ditch, Baoji, Shaanxi ru Jia Zhuang and other places in the early Western Zhou dynasty tombs and have found a lot of glass tubes, glass beads etc. The first glass probably occurred in the late spring and Autumn period. To cite an example, Yue Gou Jianjian, its case both surfaces there are inlaid with more bubbles of light blue glass. Only two pieces left. This piece of glass without lead, potassium only glass. Fuchai, the sword also has an embedded piece of glass, but is transparent. Both sword, coincidentally used glass as a decorative, visible when the glass is a precious rare substance. Only a Royal nobility to use. The warring States period were well-known glass Dragonfly eye, real lead-barium glass is in the warring States period. There are glass wall, glass ornaments, glass seals. During this period most of the glass in the form of mosaic as a utensil, less independent.
Glass in the Han dynasty of the Han dynasty inherited the warring States of lead-barium glass tradition, jade. According to the shape and use are divided into glass containers, funeral with glass and decorative glass. More Roman-Persian imported glass. More than 2000 years ago, who is said to be able to hand dance "alone in women" living in "zhaoyang Temple", the "window is green, photos, hair may not be hidden". Description when eyebrows with transparent Windows and doors can take times. Like "gods" Emperor in the "Temple of God", the doors and Windows are all "coloured glaze is light lucidity". Visible, so-called "clean" rooms, modern was founded.
Wei, Jin and Northern and Southern dynasties to the Wei, Jin and Northern and Southern dynasties, while social unrest, but rich and extravagant style of the upper class, or make the development of lead-barium glass, Roman and Sassanian imports increase. No later than the Northern Wei Dynasty, China has used a glass blowing techniques. Homemade glass of this period compared with imported Roman, Sassanid glass glass, are relatively few in number.
Glass manufacturing in sui and TANG Sui and Tang dynasty there was a major development. Especially Tang national unity, social stability and political, economic and cultural prosperity, provided conditions for the development of handicraft industry. During the Sui and Tang dynasties of glass composition mainly uses high lead glass and soda-lime glass in two different formulations, especially soda-lime glass during this period increased, and economic and cultural exchanges between East and West were inseparable. During the Tang dynasty, Buddhist relics buried bury system is the choice of glass bottles containing relics of the most inner layer capacity, it also promoted the development of China's glass industry. Glass trade with the West continues, West Asia late Sassanid glass and early Islamic glass continues through the Silk Road into our country. Sui and Tang dynasties excavated from tombs of the nobles is very exquisite glass, domestic glass, an increase in Wei, Jin, southern and Northern dynasties, but Han imitation jade glass and glass are different, focused mainly on the performance of glass and translucent texture effects.
Song dynasty so far during the Northern Song dynasty, glass technology, there has been a lot of progress. A culture of Northern Song dynasty Ding County, Hebei 33 pieces of relics unearthed in glass bottles, Crystal Ming walls such as tissue paper, such as Anhui tianchang unearthed polished glass, as well as hundreds of egg-shaped glass bottle unearthed in Mi County, Henan province, was the glass-making technology and developed evidence of blown glass level.
Yuanmingyuanming glass is not being taken seriously, even if there are still production, technology has not improved much. Bright maritime trade, imports have significantly decreased the number of Western glassware, Islamic glass was walking into the downhill at this time (instead of Islamic glass Venetian glass). This situation did not change until early Qing dynasty.
Since the Qing dynasty emperor Kangxi of the Qing dynasty established a Palace of glass, has hired several European glass craftsmen to be guided by exclusively for the Royal family to make high art glass, has been able to produce glass up to 15 per cent of the monochrome and color opaque glass. These initiatives not only promote the development of China's glass industry, and Chinese and foreign scientific and cultural exchanges. Wrapping glass, color engraving of the Qing dynasty snuff bottles and glass all glass art treasures in the world. "Nesting" decorative arts is the innovation of the Qing dynasty, forms and decorations have a variety of styles, the style becomes more delicate and beautiful. Qianlong, the glass, switching the color and size of different changes, especially on the color of glass not only coated with enamel, and blue gem color bright, and there's a lot of transparent, Royal Blue ware manufacture, in addition, Parti-colored painting also flourished during the late 18th century and early 19th century. During the Qing dynasty, there are glass engraved with different reliefs, glass towards a broader test of this technology, is also a color combination of tests. Technology workshop of the Royal family began to decline as early as from the year 1770.