Glass factories in major energy-consuming part is glass furnace (the energy of total energy consumption accounted for more than 75%). So, pay close attention to the energy-saving glass furnace is a top priority. In recent years, our glass feeding, feeding systems, combustion systems, kiln structure, insulation of furnace wall, waste heat utilization, operational control of many energy-saving measures have been taken, and made great achievements. Many plant fuel consumption targets have decreased significantly. Plant reaches the first furnace or the principal furnace level. But compared with foreign countries, there is a small gap between ... So we have to work hard to further reduce energy consumption. Following a number of energy-saving approach:
First, without raising the flame temperatures raise the glass temperature
Glass temperature increases could be accelerating the melting rate, shorten melting time, is increasing production and reduced consumption. The specific method is:
(A) increase the heat of combustion space of glass.
1. glass is selectively absorb radiant energy. Less than 3 microns in wavelength can penetrate the liquid for the download. Emits less than 3 microns in wavelength of radiant energy is the flame of carbon particles and the internal surfaces of the walls of kiln space. Therefore, improved flame emissivity (born hypoxia-carbon heat or measures) high black value and maintaining kiln built (with the masonry surface roughness and temperature. Clay bricks and the emissivity value for silica bricks at high temperature: 1000 ℃ 0.61 and 0.62 0.52, 1200 ℃-0.53 0.47-0.49, 1400 ℃. Fused refractory bricks at elevated temperatures the emissivity value for 0.4-0.5) to increase the heat of combustion space of glass.
2. Elimination of near surface "air conditioner" film. Pay attention to the liquid level height of furnace bottom and flame spray angle. Oxygen boosting measures could also be given to the use of blows (abroad after blowing oxygen at 195-500 m/s speed, faster velocity and flame temperature near the surface increased about 100 ℃).
(B) raising the temperature of molten glass in the pool or temperature uniformity.
View who reduce the surface temperature to increase flame glass heat transfer fluid. Surface temperature also increases deep direction of the homogeneity of glass melt temperature. Measures taken to achieve this is: 1. bottom bubble (be aware of bubble media purification and bubbling tile erosion). 2. deepening pool is deep. May be intense convection in vertical direction, is on the deep pool of molten glass improve temperature uniformity. But also adapt to the melting rate of increase. 3. insulation of furnace wall. 4. electric flux.
Second, shallow clarified deeper material, fluid flow control by a single channel DC directions
This to raise the clarification of glass melt temperature, reduce reflux and choose quality glass liquid inflow point of view of the throat. Such glass can improve the yield, quality and reduce the loss of back glass. Measures taken to achieve this is: the short wide kiln Kan in reduced light clarifier to sink discharge hole (melted dark material is not sinking).
Third, strengthening of
Most factories reflect, all of are key processes that impact product quality. At present, basically in the process of "congenitally deficient, and postnatal imbalance". Batch kiln caused hard to maintain uniformity of mixture consisting of uneven. The heat through the glass and heat around the kiln causing uneven temperature. Natural diffusion alone is clearly not met. To that end, must take mandatory measures. Current effective of measures has: pool low drum bubble (on dark material most obviously), material road mixing, work material or material road end of relief material (set leak material hole) and the material road electric heating. used mixing measures Shi to note mixing points location \ Blender insert depth and mixing process, or have not to ideal of effect. domestic Blender of material is needed solution of problem. surface liquid flow not only can strengthening horizontal flow \ improve temperature uniform sex, also can pulled go liquid surface of dirty material and knot skin. ear late size to right, don't caused too more of heat loss, Relief materials can be either continuous or discontinuous. Electric heating can significantly improve road way deep temperature uniformity, temperature distributions but expected water levels are not necessarily better. Electrode shape, base resistance and electrode for the determination of glass adjustment, installation, maintenance of the method is the use of heating problems. At the time of enforcement of measures, it should give full play to the natural diffusion effect. So, in design is to carefully consider the size and length of the Forehearth.
IV, stable material supply
Drop shape, size, and temperature stability is the precondition of guaranteed quality and yield. Forehearth and the separation between work and road sections, size, insulation, heating system and cooling system are the main factors influencing stable feeding. Forehearth and working parts are separated can maintain separate operating system, without interference. Some plants don't have to separate, thereby melting heat to heating Forehearth is debatable. Transection of the bottom surface of saddle can reduce the horizontal temperature differences. Appropriate to deepen the basin to increase static pressure head drops the temperature more stable. Length and width according to the flow rate, to determine the size of output. Long road is good for adjusting temperature, able to adapt to larger changes in the flow rate. Road, a large amount of heat, particularly material. So to strengthen the insulation. Heating and cooling system to be flexible, reliable and regulate the temperature of molten glass, and keep the temperature uniformity. Cooling system of coarse and fine adjustment of the heating system. Most people think that multi nozzle gas heating and electric heating combination systems are ideal.